NOTES

INTRODUCTION

Interview: Alan Blinder, Daniel Pink

19 “A global platform”: Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005).

19 “The connected world”: Thomas L. Friedman, “How Did the Robot End Up With My Job?,” New York Times, October 2, 2011.

20 The economy is now: Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum, That Used to Be Us (New York: Picador, 2011).

21 If you are: Seth Godin, Linchpin: Are You Indispensable? (New York: Portfolio Trade, 2011).

21 Between 90 and: Richard Dobbs, “The world at work,” McKinsey Global Institute (2012).

21 “Black-collar workers”: Philip Auerswald, “Bliss is on the Way,” GOOD Magazine, March 12, 2012.

22 “Saying they would”: “Nation’s Students to Give American Education System Yet Another Chance,” The Onion,” August 17, 2011.

1: STOP SUPPRESSING CHILDREN

Interviews: Nick Perez, Tony Wagner, Bernie Trilling, Charles Fadel, James Kaufman, Mark Runco, Warren Berger, Larry Rosenstock, Sugata Mitra

24 When Nick Perez: Thanks to Lisa Nielsen for allowing Nick Perez to share his story publicly on her blog: The Innovative Educator; http://theinnovativeeducator.blogspot.in/2012/05/dropping-out-was-great-idea.html.

25 Contrary to popular: JM Bridgeland, “The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts,” Civic Enterprises in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (2006).

27 Mann returned home: Matt Miller, “First: Kill All the School Boards,” Atlantic Magazine, January/February 2008.

27 In the book: Sheldon Richman, Separating School and State: How to Liberate America’s Families (Fairfax: Future of Freedom Foundation, 1994); John Gatto, Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling (Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers, 1991).

28 “The aim of”: H. L. Mencken, “The Library,” The American Mercury, April 1924.

28 “Grouping kids by”: Deborah Ruf, “The Other Achievement Gap,” Center of the American Experiment, August 2010.

28 Finally, it is: Phillip D. Long and Richard Holeton, “Singposts of the Revolution? What We Talk about When We Talk about Learning Spaces,” EDUCAUSE Review, March/April 2009.

28 “Has the Fordist”: Walter Russell Mead, “The Once and Future Liberalism,” The American Interest, March/April 2012.

29 John Gatto, in: The Ultimate History Lesson: A Weekend with John Taylor Gatto. Tragedy and Hope Communications, 2012. DVD.

29 “My whole life”: Alex Williams, “New York’s Literary Cubs,” New York Times,  December 1, 2011.

29 According to Cathy: Virginia Heffernan, “Education Needs a Digital-Age Upgrade,” New York Times, August 7, 2011; http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/08/07/education-needs-a-digital-age-upgrade/.

30 Since the amount: Shift Happens 2010. Dirs Karl Fisch and Scott McLeod, 2010.

31 “Discovery skills,” described: Jeff Dyer, Hal Gregersen, and Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovator’s DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators (Cambridge: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011).

31 A virtually unanimous: “Beyond the Three Rs: Voter Attitudes toward 21st Century Skills,” Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2007).

31 Some estimate that: Bernie Trilling and Charles Fadel, 21st Century Skills: Learning in Our Times (San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, 2009).

31 In a study: Richard Paul, Linda Elder, and Ted Bartell, “Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities To Determine Faculty Emphasis on Critical Thinking In Instruction,” Center for Critical Thinking (1995).

32 Progressive education theorist: John Dewey, How We Think (Lexington: D.C. Heath & Co., 1910).

32 A survey revealed: “AMA 2010 Critical Skills Survey,” American Management Association (2010).

33 “people who can”: Daniel Pink, “Revenge of the Right Brain,” Wired, February 2005

33 A survey conducted: “2008 U.S. Workplace Survey,” Gensler (2008).

33 “One leading investment bank”: Lawrence Summers, “What You (Really) Need to Know,” New York Times, January 22, 2012.

34 The College Board: “Writing: A Ticket to Work…Or a Ticket Out: A Survey of Business Leaders,” College Board (2004).

34 The Commission estimates: Madlen Read, “Employers say one-third of workers’ writing skills fall below job standards,” The Asheville Citizen-Times, September 19, 2004.

35 No wonder 70: James C. McCroskey, “Communication Approaches: What We Have Learned in the Last Four Decades,” University of Alabama Birmingham.

35 Studies have confirmed: Ibid, See 31: Jeff Dyer.

36 A University of Michigan: Warren Berger, “Big Innovations Question the Status Quo. How Do You Ask the Right Questions?,” FastCo.Design, March 17, 2011.

36 “My mother made”: “Great Minds Start With Questions,” Parents Magazine, September 1993

36 “Work matters, but”: Doc Searls, “Getting Flat, Part 2,” Linux Journal, April 29, 2005; http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/8280.

36 A study uncovered: Ronald A. Beghetto, “Correlates of intellectual risk taking in elementary school science, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, February 2009.

37 Malcolm Gladwell in: Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2008).

37 Thomas D. Kuczmarski: Jena McGregor, “How Failure Breeds Success,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 2, 2006; http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-07-09/how-failure-breeds-success.

37 Author Malcolm Gladwell: Ibid, See 37: Malcolm Gladwell

38 “You have to”: The College Conspiracy. National Inflation Association, 2011; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A75KERKwEQM.

38 In the book: Thomas J. Stanley, The Millionaire Mind (Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2000).

38 “When you grow”: Jake Halpern, “Fame Survey;” http://www.jakehalpern.com/famesurvey.php.

39 “Most of the brilliant”: Sir Ken Robinson, The Element: How Finding Your Passion Changes Everything (New York: Penguin Books, 2009).

40 “The days of”: Thomas L. Friedman, “Help Wanted,” New York Times, December 18, 2011.

41 Experience including error: Malcolm Knowles, The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1984).

41 The solution is simple: John Taylor Gatto, “Against School,” Harper’s Magazine, September 2003

2: LET MY COUNTRY AWAKE

Interviews: Didi Kirsten Tatlow, Frederick Tatlow-Coonan, Yong Zhao, Yichao Cen, Randy Pollock, Arnold Dodge, James Fallows, Vivek Wadhwa, Pasi Sahlberg

43 The scores, which: “PISA 2009 Results,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009).

44 There is a: Christopher Tienke, “Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?,” International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, April 3, 2008).

45 “Our education system”: Didi Kirsten Tatlow, “Education as a Path to Conformity,” New York Times, January 26, 2010.

46 “In one experiment”: David Brooks, The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement (New York: Random House, 2011).

46 Shereshevskii was constantly: Jiang Xueqin, “How China Kills Creativity,” The Diplomat, July 2, 2011.

46 “I…got an”: James Fallows, “While I’m at it, a Chinese and an American view on Chinese education,” The Atlantic, May 10, 2009.

46 A survey by: “Chinese students lack imagination, creativity,” People’s Daily Online, August 4, 2010.

47 Thus, the meritocratic: See: Confucianism and the Chinese Scholastic System; http://www.csupomona.edu/~plin/ls201/confucian3.html.

47 When Deng Xiaoping: Ann Hulbert, “Re-education,” New York Times, April 1, 2007

48 In Sichuan Province: “College entrance students within the hyperbaric chamber oxygen decompression,” New of China (Beijing), June 5, 2009.

48 At Xiaogang High: “Chinese pupils ‘hooked up to drip’ to prepare for dreaded June exam,” The Telegraph, May 10, 2012.

48 Chinese teenagers have: Rob Schmitz, “The Damaged Generation,” Marketplace, June 6, 2011.

48 In 2011, one: Erica Ho, “Middle-Aged Man Takes China’s College Entrance Exam for 16th Time,” Time, June 9, 2011.

48 When the results: “Gaokao No Predictor of Success?” Wall Street Journal, June 30, 2010.

48 Keeping track of: Yan Weijue, “Top gaokao scorers fail to live up to expectations,” China Daily, June 28, 2010.

49 What’s more, a: Chen Jiangping, “University Network: One Hundred Richest,” Sdaxue.com, July 2012.

49 More than 30: Didi Kirsten Tatlow, “Gingerly, Chinese Parents Embrace the Value of Fun,” New York Times, January 26, 2010.

49 There were three: Guo Qiang, “Three die amid Gaokao test,” China Global Times, June 9, 2010.

49 “Liu Yang, a”: Andrew Jacobs, “China’s Army of Graduates Struggle for Jobs,” New York Times, December 11, 2010.

50 “They share every”: Ibid.  

50 “It is if”: Gordon G. Chang, “Few Promising Opportunities,” New York Times, September 1, 2011; http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/12/02/what-is-a-college-degree-worth-in-china/few-promising-opportunities-for-chinas-college-graduates.

50 China’s college graduates: “The data show that college students and migrant workers starting salary gap narrowed for the first time,” Beijing News, November 22, 2010.

50 In fact, it: “China to Cancel College Majors that Don’t Pay,” Wall Street Journal, November 23, 2011.

50 “The Chinese hand”: Bill Frezza, “The Root Cause of Market Failure in Higher Education,” RealClearMarkets, November 28, 2011.

50 Subsequently, what some: Yojana Sharma, “China: Cutbacks in courses with poor job prospects,” University World News, November 24, 2011.

51 The McKinsey Global: Diana Farrell and Andrew Grant, “Addressing China’s Looming Talent Shortage,” McKinsey Global Institute (October 2005).

51 A McKinsey Quarterly: Kevin Lane and Florian Pollner, “How to Address China’s Growing Talent Shortage,” McKinsey Quarterly (July 2008).

51 Documenting his struggles: Randy Pollock, “China’s Boxed Itself In,” Los Angeles Times, May 5, 2009.

52 In 1998, years: Ibid, See 47: Ann Hulbert.

52 “We’re not going”: Nicholas Kristof, “China’s Winning Schools?,” New York Times, January 15, 2011.

52 In 2001, the: Martha Nussbaum, “The Ugly Models,” The New Republic, July 1, 2010.

53 “For instance, math”: “China’s 2020 Education Reform Strategy,” Asia Society, April 27, 2010.

53 Jonathan Plucker, a: Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, “The Creativity Crisis,” Newsweek, July 10, 2010.

54 The story revolves: 3 Idiots. Dir Rajkumar Hirani. Vinod Chopra Productions, 2009. Film.

55 The English colonial: Lord Macaulay, Minute on Indian Education, February 2, 1835.

55 “I am firmly”: K. Swaminathan, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (New Delhi: Publications Division, 1958).

56 Unfortunately, Macaulay’s ideas: Arvind Gupta, “Life at Mirambika,” NCERT.

56 “In Hindi, the”: Anurag Behar, “The making of a rote nation,” Wipro’s Blog, September 9, 2011; http://www.wipro.com/blog/The-making-of-a-rote-nation.

56 Every year, more: Tim Sullivan, “India cram school town redraws lines of success,” Associated Press, October 24, 2010.

56 One college, Shri: Tripti Lahiri, “India College Stuns with Perfect Exam Score Demand,” Wall Street Journal, June 16, 2011; http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2011/06/16/indian-college-stuns-with-perfect-exam-score-demand/.

56 “To keep an”: Davita Maharaj, “Rabindranath Tagore Vision For An Educated India,” The International India 16.3, July/August 2009.

56 In a Hindustan: Charu Sudan Kasturi, “The 13th year anxiety,” Hindustan Times, July 9, 2011.

57 “With a robust”: Anand Giridharadas, “A College Education Without Job Prospects,” New York Times, November 30, 2006.

57 Infosys says that: James Surowiecki, “India’s Skills Famine,” New Yorker, April 16, 2007.

57 “When we are”: Ibid, See 57: Anand Giridharadas.

58 The Nobel Laureate: Translated in V. Bhatia, Rabindranath Tagore: Pioneer in Education (New Delhi: Sahitya Chayan, 1994).

58 At Tagore’s school: Kathleen M. O’Connell, “Rabindranath Tagore on education’, the encyclopedia of informal education,” Infed (2003); Martha Nussbaum, Not For Profit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010).

58 Rabindranath writes that: Rabindranath Tagore, My Reminiscences (London: Macmillan, 1917).

58 “Only when our”: Ibid, See 56: Davita Maharaj.

58 In December 2011: Meera Srinivasan, “Exam-centric system of education will go: Sibal,” The Hindu, December 27, 2011.

59 For India’s iconic: Rita McGrath, “Failure is a Gold Mine for India’s Tata,” Harvard Business Review, April 11, 2011; http://blogs.hbr.org/hbr/mcgrath/2011/04/failure-is-a-gold-mine-for-ind.html.

59 “The same idea”: Vikas Bajaj, “In India, Anxiety Over the Slow Pace of Innovation,” New York Times, December 9, 2009.

59 “Innovation is not”:  Dinesh C. Sharma, “System to blame for the lack of innovation,” India Today, April 28, 2011.

60 “Build products. Build”: Sramana Mitra, “An Open Letter to IIT Students,” Sramana Mitra’s Blog, March 31, 2008; http://www.sramanamitra.com/2008/03/31/an-open-letter-to-iit-students/.

60 Yet, in the: 2009 PISA results: Ibid, See 43: “PISA 2009 Results.”

60 Their only real: Joshua Levine, “Finnishing School,” Time, April 11, 2011.

60 An analysis of the: Reijo Laukkanen (2008).

61 “Parents of newborns”: Ellen Gamerman, “What Makes Finnish Kids So Smart?,” Wall Street Journal, February 29, 2008.

61 For example, at: Ibid, See 60: Joshua Levine.

61 For science, a: Nigel Norris, An Independent Evaluation of Comprehensive Curriculum Reform in Finland (Helsinki: National Board of Education, 1996).

61 Besides Finnish, mathematics: Samuel E. Abrams, “The Children Must Play,” The New Republic, January 28, 2011.

61 Nearly 30 percent: LynNell Hancock, “Why Are Finland’s Schools Successful?,” Smithsonian Magazine, September 2011.

61 The Finns have: Ibid, See 61: Samuel E. Abrams.

61 “If minus 15”: Ibid, See 61: Samuel E. Abrams.

61 The Finnish National: Ibid, See 61: Samuel E. Abrams.

62 Thus, students have: Ellen Gamerman, “What Makes Finnish Kids So Smart?,” Wall Street Journal, February 29, 2008.

62 Ninety-three percent of: Ibid.

62 Under the current: Ibid.

62 The nation came: Klaus Schwab, “The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012,” World Economic Forum (2011).

63 “Americans like all”: Ibid, See 61: LynNell Hancock.

63 “If you only”: Ibid, See 61: LynNell Hancock.

63 We can look: Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1996).

64 Echoing Fareed Zakaria: Fareed Zakaria, “When Will We Learn?,” Time, November 14, 2011.

3: THE CORPORATE TAKEOVER

Interviews: Diane Ravitch, Milton Chen, Arnold Dodge, Alfie Kohn, Deborah Meier, Joe Bower

65 “The educational foundations”: D.P. Gardner, “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform,” National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983).

66 “a rise of”: Russell Baker, “Beset By Mediocrity.” New York Times, April 30, 1983.

66 “Computers and computer-controlled”: Ibid, See 65: D.P. Gardner.

66 “Reporters fell on”: Tamim Ansary, “Education at Risk: Fallout from a Flawed Report,” Edutopia; http://www.edutopia.org/landmark-education-report-nation-risk.

66 The late Gerald Bracey: Gerald Bracey, “We’re a Nation at Risk: At Risk (Happy April Fool’s Day),” Huffington Post, April 1, 2008; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gerald-bracey/were-a-nation-at-risk-hap_b_94519.html.

67 A blogger remarked: Dan Sewell Ward, “No Child Left Behind,” March 20, 2004; http://www.halexandria.org/dward764.htm.

67 “No Child Left”: Diane Ravitch, The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How Testing and Choice Are Undermining Education (New York: Basic Books,  2010).

68 A survey concluded: “From the Capitol to the Classroom: Year 4 of the No Child Left Behind Act,” Center on Education Policy (2007).

68 “Only two subjects”: Sam Dillon, “Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math,” New York Times, March 26, 2006.

68 Gary Stager, an: Gary Stager, “Why Should She Work For You?,” Huffington Post, October 29, 2010; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gary-stager/why-should-she-work-for-y_b_774534.html

68 “Many of the”: Joanne Yatvin, “Turning schools into robot factories,” Washington Post, September 24, 2010; http://voices.washingtonpost.com/answer-sheet/elementary-school/-this-post-was-written.html.

69 “Much of the”: Alfie Kohn, “Beware of the Standards, Not Just the Tests,” Education Week, September 26, 2001.

70 The pupils will: “Why We’re Behind: What Top Nations Teach Their Students But We Don’t,” Common Core (2009).

71 Under NCLB, adequate: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, H.R. 107-110, 107th Cong. (2002) (enacted).

71 A study found: Linda McSpadden McNeil, “Avoidable Losses: High-Stakes Accountability and the Dropout Crisis,” Economic Policy Analysis Archives (2008).

71 Ultimately, another report: Alexandra Usher, “AYP Results for 2010-11,” Center on Education Policy (December 2011).

72 “No Child Left”: Claudia Wallis, Sonja Steptoe, “How to Fix No Child Left Behind,” Time, May 24, 2007.

72 When James Arnold: James Arnold, “How Race to the Top is like ‘Queen for a Day,’” Washington Post, February 2, 2012; http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/how-race-to-the-top-is-like-queen-for-a-day/2012/02/01/gIQAhup5iQ_blog.html.

72 On the show: “Queen for a Day,” TV.com; http://www.tv.com/shows/queen-for-a-day/.

73 University of North: Heather Vogell, “Investigation into APS cheating finds unethical behavior across every level,” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, July 6, 2011.

73 Further analysis along: Joy Resmovits, “Schools Caught Cheating in Atlanta, Around the Country,” Huffington Post, August 8, 2011; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/08/atlanta-schools-cheating-scandal-ripples-across-country_n_919509.html

73 The 413-page report: “Volume 1 of Special Investigation into CRCT Cheating at APS: Overview, Interviews, School summaries,” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, July 5, 2011.

74 Hall even covered: Michael Winerip, “A New Leader Helps Heal Atlanta Schools, Scarred by Scandal,” New York Times, February 20, 2012.

74 An explosive investigative: Jack Gillum and Marisol Bello, “When standardized test scores soared in D.C., were the gains real?,” USA Today, March 30, 2011.

74 In January 2003: Valerie Strauss, “Bush Plan to Assess 4-Year-Olds’ Progress Stirs Criticism,” Washington Post, January 17, 2003.

74 “Priority 1: Absolutely”: “Race to the Top – Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) Program,” U.S. Department of Education (July 2011).

75 “There is something”: Valerie Strauss, “Race to the Top: Standardized testing for preschoolers,” Washington Post, July 6, 2011

75 “Assessment is the”: Joy Resmovits, “Education Department Releases Final Race to the Top Guidelines, Stressing Ratings and Assessments,” Huffington Post, August 23, 2011; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/23/final-race-to-the-top-guidelines_n_934493.html.

75 Less than a: Richard D. Kahlenberg, “The Charter School Idea Turns 20: A History of Evolution and Role Reversals,” Education Week, March 26, 2008.

76 A landmark study: “Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States,” Center for Research on Education Outcomes: Stanford University (2009).

76 In addition, the National: “A Closer Look at Charter Schools Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling,” National Assessment of Educational Progress (2006).

76 In an interview: Steven Brill, Class Warfare: Inside the Fight to Fix America’s Schools (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011).

76 With 135 schools: For a great segment on the Gulen Movement, watch the CBS 60 Minutes special featuring it: http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7408418n&tag=contentBody;storyMediaBox.

77 For instance, Williamsburg: Anna M. Phillips, “City and State Move to Shut Down Brooklyn Charter Network,” New York Times, January 10, 2012.

77 And Philadelphia’s charter: NPR Staff, “Investigating Charter Schools Fraud in Philadelphia, NPR, June 27, 2011.

77 The New York Times: N.R. Kleinfield, “At Explore Charter School, a Portrait of Segregated Education,” New York Times, May 13, 2012.

77 Consider a report: Julie Mead and Preston Green, “Chartering Equity: Using Charter School Legislation and Policy to Advance Equal Educational Opportunity,” National Policy Education Center (February 2012).

77 Another study identifies: “Choice Without Equity: Charter School Segregation and the Need for Civil Rights Standards,” Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles at UCLA (February 2010).

77 The 2010 campaign: Anna M. Phillips, “Emails Provide Inside Look at Mayor’s Charter School Battle,” New York Times, May 12, 2012.

78 “the kitchen is”: Sean Cavanagh, “Some States Skeptical of NCLB Waivers,” Education Week, January 11, 2012.

78 “We have piled”: Barack Obama, “Remarks by the President at Univision Town Hall,” Bell Multicultural High School, Washington, D.C., March 28, 2011.

79 “Teach with creativity”: Barack Obama, “State of the Union Address,” 2011 State of the Union Address, Capitol Building, Washington D.C., January 25, 2011.

80 “In public education”: Gary Stager, “Wanna be a School Reformer? You Better Do Your Homework!,” Huffington Post, October 19, 2010; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gary-stager/wanna-be-a-school-reforme_b_765199.html.

81 “Below are given”: Frederick J. Kelly, “The Kansas Silent Reading Tests,” Journal of Educational Psychology (February 1916); Cathy N. Davidson, Now You See It: How the Brain Science of Attention Will Transform the Way We Live, Work, and Learn (New York: Viking Adult, 2011).

81 “College practices have”: Frederick James Kelly, The University in Prospect: On the Occasion of His Inauguration as President of the University of Idaho (Moscow: University of Idaho, 1928).

82 “We do not”: Richard Hersh, “Teaching to a Test Worth Teaching to in College and High School,” Teagle Foundation.

82 “ideas that are”: Alfred North Whitehead, The Aims of Education and Other Essays (New York: Free Press, 1929).

82 “The typical English”: Matthew Burns, “Learning Facts is a Waste of Time,” Los Angeles Times, March 16, 1996.

83 First, in 2009: Diane Ravitch, “Toughen the Tests,” New York Post, August 14, 2009.

83 Intrigued by her: Diana Senechal, “Guessing My Way to Promotion,” Gotham Schools, August 17, 2009; http://gothamschools.org/2009/08/17/guessing-my-way-to-promotion/.

84 “Pineapples don’t have”: The following questions come from the New York State ELA exam.

84 “They feared socialism”: Lisa Fleisher, “Test Question Flunks,” Wall Street Journal, April 20, 2012.

84 “If your eighth”: Alexandra Petri, “Talking pineapples and unanswerable questions,” Washington Post, April 20, 2012; http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/compost/post/talking-pineapples-and-unanswerable-questions/2012/04/20/gIQAZ6M3VT_blog.html.

84 “Is this a”: Ken Jennings, “Is this talking pineapple a joke?,” New York Daily News, April 20, 2012.

85 Apparently, Pearson had: “The Pineapple and the Hare: Pearson’s absurd, nonsensical ELA exam, recycled endlessly throughout country,” NYC Public School Parents; http://nycpublicschoolparents.blogspot.com/2012/04/pineapple-and-hare-pearsons-absurd.html.

85 In its contract: Sharon Otterman, “In $32 Million Contract, State Lays Out Some Rules for Its Standardized Tests,” New York Times, August 13, 2011.

85 “The state of”: Amy Weivoda, “We hung the most dimwitted essays on the wall,” Salon, June 5, 2002.

86 “Dozens of scorers” Dan DiMaggio, “The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Test Scorer, Monthly Review; http://monthlyreview.org/2010/12/01/the-loneliness-of-the-long-distance-test-scorer.

87 After the passage: Pauline Vu, “Do State Tests Make the Grade?,” Stateline, January 17, 2008.

87 The annual cost: Jerry Grillo, “One Size Does Not Fit All,” Georgia Trend, December 2011.

88 One of the early adopters: Cathy N. Davidson, “The Future of Learning,” Mobility Shifts, New York, October 2011.

88 An extensive sum: Alfie Kohn, “From Degrading to De-Grading,” High School Magazine (March 1999).

88 Let’s take a: Thom Hartmann, Thom Hartmann’s Complete Guide to ADHD (Nevada City: Underwood Books, 2000).

88 A 2009 study: Lloyd de Vries, “High School Grades Hit By Inflation,” CBS News, February 11, 2009; http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-201_162-538000.html.

88 Research has uncovered: Susan Harter, “A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components,” Developmental Psychology (May 1981).

89 For instance, badges: Sam Kilb, “Credentials, the Next Generation,” New York Times, November 4, 2011.

89 “a test is”: Ruth Mitchell, Testing for Learning (New York: The Free Press, 1992).

89 It requires students: “Developing Performance Assessments Tasks,” Prince George’s County Public Schools; http://www.pgcps.pg.k12.md.us/~elc/developingtasks.html

90 The 90-minute performance: College and Work Readiness Assessment; http://www.cae.org/content/pro_collegework.htm.

91 The one-hour outcomes-based: The iSkills™ Assessment from ETS; http://www.ets.org/iskills/about.

4: SO YOU WANT TO BE A BARISTA?

Interviews: Vicki Abeles, Wesley Yang, William Fitzhugh, Zak Malamed, John Katzman, Richard Cao, Paul Von Blum, Priscilla Bremser, Robert Sternberg, Frank Bruni, Kevin Wanek, James Altucher, Sarah Weinstein, Dale Stephens, Natalie Warne, Alaxic Smith, Paul Henry, Joichi Ito, Michael Karnjanaprakorn, Eric Mazur

92 On April Fool’s: NPR Staff, “N.Y. Preschool Starts DNA Testing for Admission,” NPR, April 1, 2012.

92 It has become: Susan Saulny, “In Baby Boomlet, Preschool Derby Is the Fiercest Yet,” New York Times, March 3, 2006

92 Slate joked that: Emily Bazelon, “The Getting-Into-Preschool Puzzle,” Slate, March 15, 2007.

92 Incidentally, the amount: Annamaria Andriotis, “Student Loans on Rise — for Kindergarten,” SmartMoney, March 28, 2012.

92 The indie documentary: Nursery University. Dirs Marc H. Simon and Matthew Makar. Variance Films, 2008. Film.

92 The New York: Susan Dominus, “Cutthroat Preschool Ritual Isn’t Like Prison, or Is It?,” New York Times, November 14, 2008.

93 Plunking down $145: Sharon Otterman, “Tips for the Admissions Test…to Kindergarten,” New York Times, November 21, 2009.

93 “They’ll see how”: Maral Kibarian Skelsey, “Time to Kiss Up,” Washington Post, March 4, 2007.

93 In California, one: Ibid, See: 92: Emily Bazelon.

93 One Manhattan mother: Jose Martinez, “Manhattan mom sues $19K/yr. preschool for damaging 4-year-old daughter’s Ivy League chances,” New York Daily News, March 14, 2011.

93 For instance, in: Joel Shurkin, Terman’s Kids: The Groundbreaking Study of How the Gifted Grow Up (Boston: Little, Brown, 1992).

94 In fact, two: Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2008).

94 “I want a”: Jennifer Senior, “The Junior Meritocracy,” New York Magazine, February 8, 2010.

94 “Too much high”: Robert Fulghum, All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten (New York: Villard Books, 1988).

95 “All in all”: Kathleen Kingsbury, “Dirty Secrets of College Admissions,” Newsweek, January 9, 2009.

96 As described in: Amy Chua, “Why Chinese Mothers are Superior,” Wall Street Journal, January 8, 2011.

96 “Amy Chua is”: Betty Ming Liu, “Parents like Amy Chua are the reason why Asian-Americans like me are in therapy,” Betty Ming Liu’s Blog, January 8, 2011; http://bettymingliu.com/2011/01/parents-like-amy-chua-are-the-reason-why-asian-americans-like-me-are-in-therapy/.

96 “Tiger Mom”: Catherine Shu, “Tiger Mom? More like Bat Sh*t Crazy Mom!,” Catherine Shu’s Blog; http://shuflies.blogspot.com/2011/01/tiger-mom-more-like-bat-sht-crazy-mom.html.

96 “Black folks tell”: Jeff Yang, “Mother, superior?,” San Francisco Gate, January 13, 2011.

96 “Probably the best”: Beth J. Harpaz, “Dr. Zuckerberg talks about his son Mark’s upbringing,” Associated Press, February 4, 2011.

97 “Let me summarize”: Wesley Yang, “Paper Tigers,” New York Magazine, May 8, 2011.

97 Consider the example, Delivering Happiness: A Path to Profits, Passion, and Purpose (New York: Business Plus, 2010).

98 In her book: Amy Chua, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother (New York: Penguin, 2011).

98 “For the most”: Race to Nowhere. Vicki Abeles and Jessica Congdon. Reel Link Films, 2009. DVD.

98 “testing company”: Janet Lorin, “Not-For-Profit College Board Getting Rich as Fees Hit Students,” Bloomberg, August 18, 2011.

99 “There are many”: Drew Magary, “What Happens When A 35-Year-Old Man Retakes The SAT?,” Deadspin; http://deadspin.com/5893189/what-happens-when-a-35+year+old-man-retakes-the-sat.

99 In his book: Carl C. Brigham, A Study of American Intelligence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1923).

99 “Are talented chess”: Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1993).

100 “I visited an”: Richard C. Atkinson, “Standardized Tests and Access to American Universities,” Eighty-third Annual Meeting of the American Council on Education, Washington, D.C., February 2001.

100 At Chyten Educational: Barbara Matson, “Tutor says practice makes perfect: The Boston Globe, February 16, 2003.

100 “His experience covers”: Daniel Golden, “China’s Test Prep Juggernaut,” Bloomberg Businessweek, May 5, 2011.

100 The National Council: William Fitzhugh, National Association of College Admissions Counselors Conference, September 28, 2005.

100 The rubric for: Charles Mcgrath, “Writing to the Test,” New York Times, November 7, 2004.

101 “The College Board”: Charles Murray, “Abolish the SAT,” The American, July/August 2007.

101 First, in a: Felice Kaufman, “What educators can learn from gifted adults,” in F.J. Monks and W. Peters, Talent for the Future (Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1991).

101 Second, researchers Stacy: Stacy Berg Dale and Alan B. Krueger, “Estimating The Payoff To Attending A More Selective College: An Application of Selection On Observable and Unobservables,” National Bureau of Economic Research (1999).

102 A survey of: “2010 Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth,” Josephson Institute (2010).

103 Since then, as: “ SAT/ACT Optional 4-Year Universities Test Score Optional List,” FairTest; http://www.fairtest.org/university/optional.

103 “From the moment”: “Choose AP,” College Board; http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/about.html.

104 Thus, in the: “(AP) Participation,” National Center for Education Statistics; http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2012/2012026/chapter2_11.asp (2012).

104 More than 850,000: “The 8th Annual AP Report to the Nation,” College Board (February 8, 2012).

104 Slamming the A.P.: William B. Wood, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in High Schools: Report on the Content Panel for Biology (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002).

104 First off, a survey: Philip M. Sadler and Robert H. Tai, “The Role of High-School Physics in Preparing Students for College Physics,” The Physics Teacher 35 (May 1997).

105 In addition more: “College Board Advanced Credit,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology; http://web.mit.edu/firstyear/2016/subjects/ap.html.

105 “There is little”: “Learn About Advanced Placement Program,” College Board; http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/about.html

105 “A lot of”: Michael Winerip, “Teaching Beyond the Test, to Make Room Again for Currents,” New York Times, May 23, 2011.

107 We will dismantle: This is a reference to President Obama’s statement: “We will disrupt, dismantle, and defeat Al Qaeda.”

108 “Why is academic”: Robert Sternberg, College Admissions for the 21st Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010).

108 For the class: “Essay Questions,” Tufts University; http://admissions.tufts.edu/apply/essay-questions/.

109 “a privilege reserved”: Diane Ravitch, The Troubled Crusade: American Education, 1945-1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1985).

109 Roughly 40 percent: Camille L. Ryan and Julie Siebens, “Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009,” United States Census (February 2012).

109 Still, the country: “The College Completion Agenda 2011 Progress Report,” College Board (2011).

109 “A diploma wasn’t”: Frank Bruni, “The Imperiled Promise of College,” New York Times, April 29, 2012.

109 Until the early: Adam Davidson, “The Dwindling Power of a College Degree,” New York Times, November 23, 2011.

109 In the classic: The Graduate. Dir Mike Nichols. Embassy Pictures, 1967. Film.

110 The cost of: “Trends in College Pricing,” College Board (2011).

110 About two-thirds: Andrew Martin and Andrew W. Lehrer, “A Generation Hobbled by the Soaring Cost of College,” New York Times, May 13, 2012.

111 For all borrowers: Meta Brown, Andrew Haughwout, Donghoon Lee, Maricar Mabutas, and Wilbert van der Klaauw, “Grading Student Loans,” Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2012).

111 Average debt for: Ibid, See 110: Andrew Martin and Andrew W. Lehrer.

111 “I readily admit”: Ibid, See 110: Andrew Martin and Andrew W. Lehrer.

111 “You get your”: The College Conspiracy. National Inflation Association, 2011; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A75KERKwEQM.

111 “If college is”: Jim O’Neill and Michael Gibson, “Thiel Foundation To New Crop Of College-Bound Grads: Don’t Go,” Fast Company, December 22, 2011.

111 “If you add”: Daniel Indiviglio, “Chart of the Day: Student Loans Have Grown 511% Since 1999,” The Atlantic, August 18, 2011.

111 “You will be”: Andrew Hacker and Claudia Dreifus, “The Debt Crisis at American Colleges,” The Atlantic, August 17, 2011.

112 “A true bubble”: Sarah Lacy, “Peter Thiel: We’re in a Bubble and It’s Not the Internet. It’s Higher Education,” TechCrunch, April 10, 2011.

112 “Always use protection”: Student Loan STD’s. College Humor, February 13, 2012; http://www.collegehumor.com/video/6707784/student-loan-stds.

112 In their book: Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa, Academically Adrift: Limited on College Campuses (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

113 The average student: Philip Babcock and Mindy Marks, “Leisure College, USA: The Decline in Student Study Time,” American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, no. 7 (August 2010).

113 In 2007, the: “Trends and Indicators in Higher Education,” Connection XXI, no. 5 (Spring 2007).

113 “It doesn’t matter”: Daria Hejwosz, “Students as consumers: the commercialisation of higher education in the United States of America,” Liberte World, May 31, 2010.

113 In college, about: Stuart Rojstaczer and Christopher Healy, “Where A Is Ordinary: The Evolution of American College and University Grading, 1940–2009,” Teachers College Record (2012).

114 These students are: Jennifer Lee, “Generation Limbo,” New York Times, September 1, 2011.

114 More than 5,000: Richard Vedder, “Why Did 17 Million Students Go to College?,” Chronicle of Higher Education, October 20, 2010.

114 With that being: Jessica Godofsky, Cliff Zukin, Carl Van Horn, “Unfulfilled Expectations: Recent College Graduates Struggle in a Troubled Economy,” John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (May 2011).

114 Also, the median: “2010 Census Data,” United States Census 2010 (2010)

114 Even worse, the: Nathaniel Penn, “Hello, Cruel World,” New York Times, March 23, 2012.

115 In April 2012: Hope Yen, “1 in 2 new graduates are jobless or underemployed,” Associated Press, April 23, 2012.

115 In May 2012: “Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment,” Bureau of Labor Statistics (May 2012).

115 And a report: Stacey Patton, “The Ph.D. Now Comes with Food Stamps,” Chronicle of Higher Education, May 6, 2012.

115 Again, that argument: Ibid, See 114: Richard Vedder.

115 An online salary: “2012 ROI Rankings: College Education Value Compared,” PayScale (2012).

115 “In pure financial”: William Bennett, “Do we need a revolution in higher education?,” CNN; June 13, 2012.

116 From a study: Ibid, See 115: Payscale.

116 Unemployment rates are: Anthony P. Carnevale, Ban Cheah, and Jeff Strohl, “Hard Times: College Majors, Unemployment and Earnings: Not All College Degrees Are Created Equal,” Georgetown University: Center on Education and the Workplace (2012).

117 “One thing we”: Thomas Friedman, “Broadway and the Mosque,” New York Times, August 4, 2010.

117 “In an information”: David Brooks, “History for Dollars,” New York Times, June 8, 2010.

120 “Let’s say you”: Michael Ellsberg, The Education of Millionaires: It’s Not What You Think and It’s Not Too Late (New York: Portfolio, 2011).

121 “Does a $40,000”: Seth Godin, “Buying an education or buying a brand?,” Seth Godin’s Blog, April 15, 2011; http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2011/04/buying-an-education-or-buying-a-brand.html.

5: INNOVATE OR DIE

Interviews: Cody Pomeranz, Kathyrn Schulz, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Robin Hanson, Steve Strauss, Roger Neill

122 “To be creative”: Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, “The Creativity Crisis,” Newsweek, July 10, 2010.

123 The finding was: Ibid.

123 “They don’t feel”: Alex Crevar, “The Father of Creativity,” University of Georgia; http://www.uga.edu/gm/301/FeatCreate.html.

123 In fact, Jonathan: Ibid, See 121: Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman.

123 In 1992, we: George Land and Beth Jarman, Breakpoint and Beyond (New York: HarperBusiness, 1992).

124 Joanne Rowling is: For the section on J.K. Rowling, I used a number of sources, including her website: http://www.jkrowling.com/; J.K. Rowling, “The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination,” Harvard University, June 2008; Marc Shapiro, J.K. Rowling: The Wizard Behind Harry Potter (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000); “Report: Author Rowling considered suicide,” USA Today, March 23, 2008; Stephen McGinty, “The J.K. Rowling Story,” The Scotsman, June 16, 2003.

125 “I’ve always thought”: Chuck Salter, “Failure Doesn’t Suck,” Fast Company, May 2007.

125 “were no better”: Michael Michalko, “Twelve Things You Were Not Taught in School About Creative Thinking,” The Creativity Post, December 6, 2011; http://www.creativitypost.com/create/twelve_things_you_were_not_taught_in_school_about_creative_thinking.

125 In life, Reid: Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha, The Startup of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career (New York: Crown Business, 2012).

125 Author Chuck Frey: Chuck Frey, “ABZ: A brilliant approach to life planning,” Up Your Impact; http://upyourimpact.com/abz-a-brilliant-approach-to-life-planning/.

126 Let’s teach kids: “The World’s Smartest Companies Take Risks, But Not All Of Them Are The Best Bet,” Fast Company, October 19, 2011

126 “Play at age five”: Peggy Orenstein, “Kindergarten Cram,” New York Times, April 29, 2009

127 A survey of: Edward Miller and Joan Almon, “Crisis in the Kindergarten Why Children Need to Play in School,” Alliance for Childhood (2009).

127 In the 1970s: Der Spiegel, 20, 1977.

127 One possible answer: Elizabeth Bonawitz, “The Double-edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery,” Cognition (2010); Jonah Lehrer, “Every Child Is A Scientist,” Wired, September 28, 2011; Alison Gopnik, “Why Preschool Shouldn’t Be Like School,” Slate, March 16, 2011.

128 “If I teach”: “Don’t show, don’t tell? Direct instruction can thwart independent exploration,” ScienceDaily, August 5, 2012.

128 “They came close”: Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011).

128 Founded in 2002: I discovered Atlassian’s story from Daniel Pink’s TED talk; ShipIt Days at Atlassian: http://www.atlassian.com/company/about/shipit

129 “make a broad”: Bharat Mediratta told to Julie Bick, “The Google Way: Give Engineers Room,” New York Times, October 21, 2007.

129 After 280 hours: Belén Aranda-Alvarado, “What Caine’s Arcade Teaches Us About Modern Parenting,” Mamiverse, April 19, 2012.

129 One morning, import-exporter: For the commentary on Steve Mariotti, I used a number of sources, including a brief chat; Frank Rubino, “Leading Economic Educator,” HOPE Magazine, July/August 2003; Steve Mariotti, The Young Entrepreneur’s Guide to Starting and Running a Business (New York: 3 Rivers Press, 2000); Jessica Bruder, “A Youth Entrepreneurship Program Goes International,” New York Times, May 15, 2012.

131 “You were born”: Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha, The Startup of You: Adapt to the Future, Invest in Yourself, and Transform Your Career (New York: Crown Business, 2012).

131 In the 1990s: Cathy Ashmore, “Why We’re So Bad At Teaching Entrepreneurship,” Time; http://business.time.com/2012/05/23/why-were-so-bad-at-teaching-entrepreneurship/.

131 Indeed, years ago: What’s Your EQ? Determine Your Entrepreneurial Quotient; http://diydollars.com/self-employment-news/whats-your-eq-determine-your-entrepreneurial-quotient/.

132 “None of us”: Barack Obama, “State of the Union Address,” 2011 State of the Union Address, Capitol Building, Washington D.C., January 25, 2011.

133 “Sixth in global”: Thomas Friedman, “Can’t Keep a Bad Idea Down,” New York Times, October 27, 2010.

133 The following is: The World’s 50 Most Innovative Companies 2012; http://www.fastcompany.com/most-innovative-companies/2012/full-list.

134 Hofstede says that: Geert Hofstede, “The Business of International: Business is Culture,” International Business Review (1994).

134 The Journal of: CrossCheck: Helen (Yuehong) Zhang, “An Effective Tool for Detecting Plagiarism,” Zhejiang University Press (January 2010).

134 “Only 20 percent”: Gu Di, “Copycat culture draws down China’s IT innovation,” Global Times, May 30, 2011.

134 “With quick profits”: Adam Segal, Advantage: How American Innovation Can Overcome the Asian Challenge (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011).

135 What’s more, Thomson: Louisa Lim, “Plagiarism Plague Hinders China’s Scientific Ambition,” NPR, August 3, 2011.

135 “…despite the size”: “The National Medium and Long Term Plan for the Development of Science and Technology (2006-2020),” State Council of the People’s Republic of China (2006).

6: IT’S THE CURRICULUM, STUPID!

Interviews: Kelly Gallagher, William Fitzhugh, Conrad Wolfram, Richard Rusczyk, Frank Noschese, Larry Bock, Shirley Malcom, Jack Hassard, Chris Lehmann, Eric Mazur, Jeff Hoffman, Joichi Ito, Gever Tulley, Diane Laufenberg, Howard Gardner

136 “It is clear”: Ralph W. Tyler, The Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1949).

137 A majority of: Making Disciples of Oral Learners. Story Runners, 2004. DVD.; http://www.storyrunners.com/resources/making-disciples-of-oral-learners.

137 “Homer, Plato, the”: Harold Bloom, “Get Lost. In Books,” New York Times, September 6, 2009; Deborah Meier, Why School? Rethinking Essentials, Education Week, September 24, 2009.

138 Michelangelo, a sculptor: “The Neglected ‘R’: The Need for a Writing Revolution,” The College Board (April 2003).

138 Thus, only about: Ibid.

138 Experiments over the: Richard Chase Anderson, “Becoming a Nation of Readers: The Report of the Commission on Reading,” National Institute of Education (1985).

139 Still, in a: William Fitzhugh, “History Research Paper Study,” The Concord Review (November 2002).

140 Paul Lockhart, a: Paul Lockhart, “A Mathematical’s Lament,” Mathematical Association of America (2002).

141 “You expect sitcom-sized”: Dan Meyer, “Dan Meyer: Math class needs a makeover,” TEDxNYED, March 2010.

141 Ironically, M.I.T. graduates: “Notes from the Field,” High Tech High; http://www.hightechhigh.org/resource-center/Curriculum/Curric-HTH%20Math.pdf.

142 He found that: Richard Rothstein, “Lessons: Statistics, a Tool for Life, is Getting Short Shrift,” New York Times, November 28, 2001.

144 Duke University Professor: Cathy Davidson, “Why We Need a 4th R: Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic, algoRithms,” DML Central, January 25, 2012.

144 Programming language environments: Stephanie Schorow, “Creating from Scratch,” MIT News, May 14, 2007.

144 For example, Thomas: Thomas Suarez, “Thomas Suarez: A 12-year-old app developer,” TEDxManhattan, October 2011.

145 In a letter: Ramanujan Srinivasa, Am Inspiration 2 Vols. (Madras, 1968).

145 “Is zero divided”: Robert Kanigel, The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992).

145 The National Assessment: “The National Assessment: U.S. History 2010 Report Card,” National Assessment of Educational Progress (2010).

145 “We’re raising young”: Brian Bolduc, “Don’t Know Much About History,” Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2011.

145 Citing a 1998: National Constitution Center (1998).

146 In his provocative: James Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong (New York: Touchstone, 2007).

147 “Not even one”: John Goodlad, A Place Called School: Prospects for the Future (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984).

148 A study concludes: Andrew C. Butler, Franklin M. Zaromb, Keith B. Lyle, and Henry L. Roediger, III, “Using Popular Films to Enhance Classroom Learning The Good, the Bad, and the Interesting,” Psychological Science 20, no. 9 (2009).

149 “They can learn”: Ibid, See 144: Brian Bolduc.

150 According to data: “The Nation’s Report Card: Civics 2010, National Assessment of Educational Progress (2011).

150 When Newsweek gave: Andrew Romano, “How Dumb Are We?,” Newsweek, March 20, 2011.

150 What’s even more: “Kaiser Health Tracking Poll: Public Opinion on Health Care Issues,” The Kaiser Family Foundation (February 2011).

150 While it’s easy: Michael X. Delli Carpini and Scott Keeter, What Americans Know About Politics and Why It Matters (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997).

150 “You sit in”: Abby Kiesa, “Millennials Talk Politics: A Study of College Student Political Engagement,” Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning & Engagement (CIRCLE) and The Charles F. Kettering Foundation (November 2007).

151 “I cannot tell”: Garry Wills, “Play Politics,” New York Times, September 6, 2009.

151 Benjamin Rush, a: Sandra Day O’Connor, Lee H. Hamilton: “A Democracy Without Civics?,” Christian Science Monitor, September 18, 2008.

152 A 2008 study: “Ready to Innovate,” The Conference Board (2008).

152 Some statistics suggest: Nick Rabkin and E. C. Hedberg, “Arts education in America: What the declines mean for arts participation,” National Endowment for the Arts (February 2011).

153 Studies have confirmed: Christopher Drew, “Why Science Majors Change Their Minds (It’s Just So Darn Hard), New York Times, November 4, 2011.

154 Even forensics science: Mia Sharma, “Why science lessons are boring,” Cosmos Magazine; November 17, 2010

155 “They learn with”: Dudley Herschbach, State of Tomorrow; http://www.stateoftomorrow.com/stories/energy/herschbach.htm.

155 “When I teach”: Claudia Dreifus, “A Conversation with: Robert C. Richardson; The Chilling of American Science,” New York Times, July 6, 2004.

156 A majority of: “Science and Engineering Indicators 2012,” National Science Foundation (2012).

156 Research from John: John H. Falk and Lynn D. Dierking, “The 95 Percent Solution,” American Scientist, November-December 2010.

156 Understand, these “high”: Ellen V. Futter, “Opinion: The Role of Museums in 21st Century Science Education,” NBC Education Nation, October 2, 2010.

156 “Science is a perspective”: Brian Greene, “Put a Little Science in Your Life,” New York Times, June 1, 2008.

158 Research conducted over: For research done on lectures, see: http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/tomorrows-college/lectures/resources.html.

158 Then after reading: Halloun and D. Hestenes, “The initial knowledge state of college physics students,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 1043 (1985).

158 Furthermore, a recent: Gregory Ferenstein, “Move Over Harvard And MIT, Stanford Has The Real “Revolution In Education,” TechCrunch, May 9, 2012.

158 “has become so”: Hemi Gandhi, “Combating the Facebook Index,” The Harvard Crimson, October 24, 2011.

159 “Khan Academy is”: Karim Kai Ani, “Khan Academy: It’s Different This Time,” Mathalicious, February 4, 2012.

160 Author Frans Johansson: Frans Johansson, The Medici Effect: Breakthrough Insights at the Intersection of Ideas, Concepts, and Cultures (Cambridge: Harvard Business Review Press, 2004).

160 According to Lakhani’s: Tina Rosenberg, “Prizes With an Eye Toward the Future,” New York Times, February 29, 2012; http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/29/prizes-with-an-eye-toward-the-future/.

161 “Today’s problems — from”: Frank Moss, The Sorcerers and Their Apprentices: How the Digital Magicians of the MIT Media Lab Are Creating the Innovative Technologies That Will Transform Our Lives (New York: Crown Business, 2011).

161 “The school must”: John Dewey, “My Pedagogic Creed,” School Journal, January 1897.

161 “wholehearted purposeful activity”: William Heard Kilpatrick, “The Project Based Method: The Use of the Purposeful Act in the Educative Process,” October 12, 1918.

162 The goal is: Ken Auletta, “Get Rich U,” New Yorker, April 30, 2012.

162 Based on the: Carolyn T. Geer, “Innovation 101,” Wall Street Journal, October 16, 2011.

165 “1. Students learn more”: Brigid Barron, Linda Darling Hammond, “Powerful Learning: Studies Show Deep Understanding Derives from Collaborative Methods,” Edutopia; October 8, 2011; http://www.edutopia.org/inquiry-project-learning-research.

165 “‘Personalized’ learning is”: Will Richardson, “Personalizing flipped engagement,” SmartBlogs, July 2, 2012; http://smartblogs.com/education/2012/07/02/personalizing-flipped-engagement/.

167 “an embryonic community”: John Dewey, The School and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1907).

7: NATION BUILDERS

Interviews: Stephen Ritz, Pasi Sahlberg, Arthur Levine, Tony Wagner, Alfie Kohn, William Johnson

169 “When we don’t”: Dave Eggers and Nínive Clements Calegari, “The High Cost of Low Teacher Salaries, New York Times, May 1, 2011.

169 “Can an education”: Michael Winerip, “Teachers Get Little Say in a Book About Them,” New York Times, August 29, 2011.

169 Secretary Arne Duncan: Arne Duncan, “Working Toward ‘Wow’: A Vision for a New Teaching Profession Remarks of Arne Duncan, National Board of Professional Teaching Standards,” July 29, 2011.

170 Of the roughly: John Heilemann, “Schools: The Disaster Movie,” New York Magazine, September 5, 2010.

170 “Only when the”: Thomas Friedman, “Swimming Without a Suit,” New York Times, April 21, 2009.

170 Only eight universities: Diane Ravitch, “Schools We Can Envy,” The New York Review of Books, March 8, 2012; http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/mar/08/schools-we-can-envy/?pagination=false.

170 In 2008, the: Joshua Levine, “Finnishing School,” Time, April 11, 2011.

167 A 2010 McKinsey: Byron Auguste, Paul Kihn, Matt Miller, “Closing the talent gap: Attracting and retaining top-third graduates to careers in teaching,” McKinsey & Company (September 2010).

171 In fact, according: Martin Gross, The Conspiracy of Ignorance: The Failure of American Public Schools (New York: Harper, 1999); Dori Staehle, “Death of Creativity,”Next Stage Education Services;” http://www.nextstage-edu.com/2012/03/20/the-death-of-education-the-by-product-of-a-standardized-education-part-1/

171 According to author: Lynn O’Shaughnessy, “Here’s the Nation’s Easiest Major,” CBS News, June 20, 2011.

171 “We recognize that: Ibid, See: 168: Byron Auguste.

171 “You could do”: American Teacher. Dirs Vanessa Roth and Brian McGinn. First Run Features, 2011. Film.

171 The average starting: Ibid, See 167: Dave Eggers and Nínive Clements Calegari.

171 In 1970 in: Ibid, See: 168: Byron Auguste.

171 Today, including salary: Ibid, See: 168: Byron Auguste.

171 The average income: Annette Witheridge, “Crisis, what crisis? Top 25 hedge fund managers pocket an average of $1 billion in 2009,” Daily Mail, April 1, 2010.

172 “In Michigan, where”: David Z. Hambrick, “Intelligence Is Not the Same as Value,” New York Times, January 5, 2012; http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/01/02/are-teachers-overpaid/intelligence-is-not-the-same-as-value.

172 Recently, the Organization: Andreas Schleicher, “Building a High-Quality Teaching Profession: Lessons from around the world,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2011).

172 In Finland, salaries: Ibid, See: 168: Byron Auguste.

172 “Only four years”: Susan Saulny, “Voters in Central Florida Want Assurances on Economy,” New York Times, January 29, 2012.

173 “When you have”: Ibid, See 169: American Teacher.

173 In 1981, about: Christine Armario, “Teachers, facing low salaries, opt to moonlight,” Boston, November 11, 2011.

173 Sixty-two percent of: Paul Wolman, “Status of the American Public School Teacher 2005-2006,” National Education Association (March 2010).

173 Fourteen percent of: Ibid, See: 168: Byron Auguste.

173 Estimates put the: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, estimate based on NCTAF Teacher Turnover Cost Calculator applied to the Digest for Education Statistics data for all public school teachers in urban and non-urban public schools and districts.

173 Fortunately, a majority: “Do teachers make enough?,” Poll Position (2011).

173 Recently, a study: Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Jonah E. Rockoff, “The Long-Term Impacts of Teachers: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood,” National Bureau of Economic Research (December 2011).

173 McKinsey polled 900: Dave Eggers and Nínive Clements Calegari, “The High Cost of Low Teacher Salaries, New York Times, May 1, 2011.

173 “We want higher”:  Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960. John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, 2010; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

174 From the beginning: Grace Rubenstein, “Confronting the Crisis in Teacher Training,” Edutopia, November 14, 2007.

174 Today, these institutions: Personal interview with Arthur Levine.

174 “The dirty little”: Jesse Scaccia, “Graduate Schools of Education: ‘Cash Cows’ says Harvard lecturer,” Teacher, Revised Blog, March 31, 2009.

174 According to the: Elizabeth Green, “Building a Better Teacher,” New York Times Magazine, March 7, 2010.

174 A 2006 report: Ibid.

175 Only a semester: Max Bean, “A Better Way to Train Teachers,” Dewey to Delpit, May 28, 2011.

175 “at least seven”: “How to Become a New York City Licensed MASTER PLUMBER,” NYC Buildings; http://www.nyc.gov/html/dob/downloads/pdf/master_plumbers_license_exam.pdf.

175 Malcolm Gladwell, in: Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2008).

176 “The Willie Sutton”: Arthur Levine, “How to improve teacher education now (and why Teach for America isn’t the answer),” Washington Post, August 3, 2011; http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/post/how-to-improve-teacher-education-now-and-why-teach-for-america-isnt-the-answer/2011/08/02/gIQANclsqI_blog.html.

176 In a 2002: Ildiko Laczko-Kerr, David C. Berliner, “The Effectiveness of ‘Teach for America’ and Other Under-certified Teachers,” Economic Policy Analysis Archives (2002).

176 “Subject matter knowledge”: John Dewey, Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (New York: Macmillan, 1916).

177 In the Wall, a: William V. Healey, “Heal for America,” Wall Street Journal, September 12, 2009.

177 More than 50: Julian Vasquez Heilig and Su Jin Jez, “Teach for America: A Review of the Evidence,” Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice (June 2010).

177 Only 11.34 percent: Morgaen L. Donaldson and Susan Moore Johnson, “TFA Teachers: How Long Do They Teach? Why Do They Leave?,” Phi Delta Kappan, October 4, 2011.

178 “Looking back, I’m”: Anna, “Why I Hate Teach for America,” Feministe, August 23, 2008.

178 A piece by: “My Year Volunteering As A Teacher Helped Educate A New Generation Of Underprivileged Kids,” The Onion, July 17, 2012

178 Under pressure to: Walt Gardner, “No merit in merit pay for teachers,” Guardian, March 27, 2011.

179 In 2010, the: Matthew G. Springer, “Teacher Pay for Performance Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching,” National Center on Performance Incentives (September 2010).

179 “no evidence that”: Roland G. Fryer, “Teacher Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from New York City Public Schools,” The National Bureau of Economic Research (March 2011).

180 Decades ago, Frederick: Andrea Gabor, “Why Pay Incentives Are Destined to Fail,” Education Week, September 22, 2010.

180 “nourishes short-term”: W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982).

180 In his book: Daniel Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (New York: Riverhead Trade, 2011).

181 “Teachers rated ineffective”: Chancellor Tisch and Commissioner King Praise Evaluation Agreement; http://www.oms.nysed.gov/press/ChancellorTischandCommissionerKingPraiseEvaluationAgreement.html.

182 On Friday evening: Leo Casey, “The True Story of Pascale Mauclair,” New York Post, February 28, 2012; http://www.edwize.org/the-true-story-of-pascale-mauclair.

182 The next day: Jeane Macintosh, “Teachers who got zero ratings,” New York Post, February 25, 2012.

182 On Sunday, another: Georgett Roberts, “Queens parents demand answers following teacher’s low grades,” New York Post, February 26, 2012.

182 Here are the facts: Linda Darling-Hammond, “Value-Added Evaluation Hurts Teaching,” Education Week, March 5, 2012.

182 “The current frenzy”: Diane Ravitch, “No Student Left Untested,” The New York Review of Books, February 21, 2012; http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2012/feb/21/no-student-left-untested/.

183 As the criticism: William Johnson, “Confessions of a ‘Bad’ Teacher,” New York Times, March 4, 2012.

183 More than half: “MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Teachers, Parents and the Economy,” MetLife (March 2012).

184 Still, a poll: “New York City (NYC) Poll,” Quinnipiac University (February 2012).

185 Educator Marvin Mitchell: Larry Ferlazzo, “What’s A Good Way For A Teacher To Evaluate Him/Herself?,” Larry Ferlazzo’s Websites of the Day, March 23, 2009.

186 “No staff members”: Peter Gray, Children Educate Themselves IV: Lessons from Sudbury Valley, Psychology Today, August 13, 2008; http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200808/children-educate-themselves-iv-lessons-sudbury-valley.

186 “The teacher is”: John Dewey, The Essential Dewey: Pragmatism, Education, Democracy (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998).

187 “I flew overnight”: Matt Damon, Save Our Schools Convention, Washington D.C., July 30, 2011.

189 “You’ll never know”: Frank McCourt, Teacher Man: A Memoir (New York: Scribner, 2005).

EPILOGUE

Interviews: Noam Chomsky, Seth Godin

193 “We live in,” Seth Godin, What Matters Now (New York: Triibes Press, 2009).



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